lake michigan air directors consortium (LADCO)

The Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium (LADCO) was established in 1990 by the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin with Ohio being added in 2004. The purpose of LADCO is to provide technical assistance to its member states on issues related to air quality. Ohio, Illinois and Indiana have each adopted Architectural and Industrial Maintenance (AIM) coating VOC limits consistent with those in the OTC Model Rule 2002. Michigan and Wisconsin continue to follow the EPA National Rule.

ladco exemptions:

  • Small container exemption allows the sale of coatings above maximum VOC limits if packaged in containers of one liter or less.
  • Sell-through provision allows the sale of coatings above the maximum VOC limits if manufactured prior to the individual state rule's effective data. The sell-through period may range from three years to indefinite.

For the most current information on LADCO, please visit

For the individual state rules, please visit the specific state environmental protection agency website.

Coating Category* VOC (g/L)
Flat 100
Non-Flat 150
Non-Flat High Gloss 250
Industrial Maintenance General 340
Industrial Maintenance High Temp 420
Primer 200
Quick Dry Primer 200
Specialty Primer 350
Quick Dry Enamel 250
Floor 250
Rust Preventative 400
Stains 250
Dry Fog 400
Varnish 350
Waterproof - Wood 250
Waterproof - Concrete 400












*Category names are for comparison purposes between the various air districts only.

The actual name listed in specific rules may vary.